ACTA Scientiarum Polonorum - Technologia Alimentaria News en (c) Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu przyrodniczego w Poznaniu Effect of packaging and season of milk production on selected quality characteristics of organic acid curd cheese during storage

Background. This study aimed to estimate the effect of the season of milk production and the packaging method on sensory characteristics and some physicochemical indices of fresh curd cheese stored in cooling conditions.
Material and methods. This study covered three seasons: autumn (October), winter (January) and spring (March/April). The experimental samples were vacuum packed in 50 or 100 μm PE fi lm, or in parchment paper and 50 or 100 μm PE fi lm. The evaluation was made on the day of production of the cheese and after 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of cold storage. The tvarogs were subjected to the sensory evaluation, and also the investigation of moisture content, fat content, acidity, pH, hardness and the percentage of whey leakage was carried out.
Result. It was found that among the sensory characteristics the deterioration in odour occurred fi rst in the course of storage, regardless of the packaging method applied. The method of packaging exerted no clear effect on moisture content, fat content and hardness of tvarogs. However, wrapping tvarogs additionally in parchment paper increased whey leakage, but also favourably affected cheese structure and consistency.
Conclusions. Tvarog packed in parchment paper and 100 μm PE fi lm had the most desirable sensory characteristics in the course of storage. The shelf-life of the studied tvarog cheeses was as long as 7 days, regardless of the packaging method used and season of milk production.

Effect of technological factors on water activity of extruded corn product with an addition of whey proteins

Background. The value of water activity in extruded products constitutes a significant indicator of theirquality and stability. The state, in which water is found in extruded products, is an indicator of the conducted extrusion process and the used raw material.

Material and methods. The aim of the study was to assess water activity in extruded products made from a mixture of com grits with 12.5 and 15.0% moisture contents and different level ofaddition of whey proteins.
Results and discussion. It was shown that the degree of mixture moisture content did not have an effect on the value of aw in produced puffs. The greatest difference was recorded when introducing 3% proteins in comparison to ow of puffs produced solely from corn grits. A aw = 0.023. The greater the content of whey proteins,the lower the aw value. A 3-month storage at a temperature of 18 ±0.5°C  influenced aw of snacks produced from a mixture with a higher moisture content.


Use of indigenous technology for the production of High Quality Cassava Flour with similar food qualities as wheat flour

Background. The aim of the paper was to compare the food qualities of 2 varieties (SME 1 and 2) of high quality cassava flour (HQCF) produced from indigenous technology and that of some commercially sold wheat/HQCF samples.
Material and methods. The pH, proximate, phytochemical, antioxidant, functional properties and starch yield of the flours were carried out using standard techniques.
Results. The wheat flours had higher bulk densities and lipids than the HQCF samples while the oil absorption capacity of the HQCF (SME 2) was higher than other fl our samples investigated. The antioxidant assays of the flours showed that they contained considerable levels of antioxidants with the HQCF sample from DAT having higher antioxidants than other flour samples studied. The HQCF (SME 1) had signifi cantly higher (P < 0.05) starch content among the flour samples. The bacteria counts of the HQCF samples ranged from 0 to 1.4 × 104 cfu/ml while the fungal count ranged from 0 to 2 × 10-3 with the unbranded wheat fl our having the highest microbial load compared with other flour samples studied.
Conclusion. The use of this indigenous technology produces HQCF with lower lipids, microbial contamination but higher flavour retaining ability, flavonoids and starch contents than wheat flour. The signifi cant positive correlation (R2 = 0.872) between reducing power of the samples and their DPPH antioxidant activity indicate that either could be used to assay for the total antioxidant activity of cassava and wheat flour. The study underscores the need to buy flour from branded companies to reduce the risks of microbial contamination.

Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel

Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.
Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β;-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C.
Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays.
Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

Isolation, purifi cation and characterisation of transglutaminase from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves


Background. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a spice and medicinal herb widely used around the world of the natural antioxidants, and it has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Transglutaminase (EC TGase) is an enzyme capable of catalysing acyl transfer reactions by introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, as well as peptides and various primary amines. TGase activity in plants was first observed in pea seedlings, and subsequently found in organs of both lower and higher plants. Recently. TGase has captured researchers' interest due to its attractive potential application in food industries. Therefore, the objectives of this study are isolation and purification of TGase from new plant source rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves at the laboratory scale. Moreover, investigation of the biochemical properties of the purified TGase to provide a suitable TGase enzyme for food industry applications are in focus.
Material and methods. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves was used as a new plant source to TGase. The biochemical characteristics of the crude and purified enzyme were determined.
Results. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) TGase was purified to homogeneity by successive three purification steps including ammonium sulfate precipitatation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column and Size exclusion column chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. Under experimental conditions. 20-30% of ammonium sulfate saturation in the enzyme solution had a high yield of enzyme activity could be obtained. The purified enzyme from the Sephadex G-100 column had 21.35% yield with increased about 7.31 in purification fold. Rosemary TGase exhibited optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 55°C for
the catalytic reaction of hydroxylarnine and Z-Gln-Gly. The purified TGase almost maintained full activity after incubation for 15 ruin up to 60°C and it was completely inactivated at 85°C. The rosemary TGase was stimulated at 2-6 rnM CaCl2 concentrations while it lost about 5-20% from its activity by increasing CaCl2 concentration. Sodium chloride (2-14%) shows no noticeable inhibition of the purified TGase activity. Mg+2, Ba+2 were acivited by the purified TGase while it was str ongly inhibited by Fe+2, moderately by Cir2 and Mn+2.
Conclusion. This paper reports on the purification and characterisation of TGase from newly isolated plant, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves. Finding results of the TGase properties make this enzyme a good candidate for application in the food industry. However, additional work is required to increase activity yield during extraction and purification for commercial scale of TGase from this plant.


Astaxanthin synthesis by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous DSM 5626 and its astaxanthin overproducing mutants on xylose media under diferent illumination
Background. Astaxanthin is the most important and expensive carotenoid pigment used in aquaculture. Its commercial attractiveness is also related with its antioxidant potential. XanthophyUomyces dendrorhous yeast is considered to be promising for commercial production of astaxanthin. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of the growth and astaxanthin production by X. dendrorhous strains 011 media containing xylose under different illumination.
Material and methods. A', dendrorhous DSM 5626 and its mutants: 10BE and 26UV were used in this study. The cultures were carried out 011 hydrolysed rye stillage (HS) and YM medium with xylose (YM-K). Cell concentration, total carotenoid and astaxanthin yields were assessed in 5-day cultures. The effect of illumination in the range of 0-5.000 lx 011 growth and on astaxanthin production of yeasts in cultures run 011 YM-K medium was also examined.
Results. For the tested yeast strains better growth parameters and astaxanthin yields were obtained on the YM-K medium. 011 which for all strains the highest pigment yields were recorded at 600-1.000 lx. The highest concentration of astaxanthin in cells was recorded for 26UV in a culture at 1.000 lx (0.51 gkg-1 DCW). The volume yield of the pigment regardless of strain was highest in cultures at 600 lx. In this case 10BE was found to be the best astaxanthin producer with a yield of 2.15 mg dm-3.
Conclusions. Astaxanthin synthesis in X. dendrorhous DSM 5626 and its mutants was better 011 YM-K medium comparing to hydrolysed rye stillage. Moreover, carotenogenesis in the studied yeast strains was subjected to marked photoregulation. Illumination within the range of 600-1.000 lx promotes carotenogenesis and astaxanthin production, while exceeding a certain light capacity results in microbial cell death.
The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review

The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose). Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical and chemical properties and biological activity. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits (pomegranate, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry), nuts
(walnuts, almonds), and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-infl ammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral) activity. Furthermore, they improve the health of blood vessels. The paper discusses the metabolism and bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. Ellagitannins are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal microbiota. They are stable in the stomach and undergo neither hydrolysis to free ellagic acid nor degradation. In turn, ellagic acid can be absorbed in the stomach. This paper shows the role of cancer cell lines in the studies of ellagitannins and ellagic acid metabolism. The biological activity of these compounds is broad and thus the focus is on their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Ellagitannins exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, viruses, and importantly, bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Share of dietary supplements in nutrition of coeliac disease patients

Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the intake of vitamins and minerals from the food ration and levels recorded after synthetic supplementation in patients following a gluten-free diet.
Material and methods. The study included a cohort of 25 individuals aged 20-54. Nutrient intakes were assessed based on a 24-hour diet recall interview and an original questionnaire prepared by the authors specifically for this study. Anthropometric measurements were recorded in order to assess the nutritional status of the patients.
Results and discussion. A low energy intake and an excessive share of fat were observed in daily food rations of coeliac disease patients. Uptake of most minerals with the diet was too low, while that of vitamins too high. Most participants declared the administration of supplements, which greatly contributed to the coverage of requirements for these nutrients.
Conclusions. It was observed that the administered supplementation was frequently unjustifi ed, which led to the allowances being considerably exceeded for many vitamins and minerals.

Comparison between the nutritional quality of flour obtained from raw, roasted and fermented sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed grown in Nigeria


Background. The most common form of utilization of sesame seed is its roasting, which supplies nutrients to the diet. Therefore, in view of the nutritional values of sesame seeds, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of roasting and fermentation 011 the nutritional quality of sesame flour.
Material and methods. Nigeria grown white sesame seeds (NC’RI-98-60) were collected from National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI). Badegi. Nigeria. The seeds were divided into three portions, and treated as raw. roasted and fermented sesame seeds respectively. Each of the samples was milled, sieved and analysed for chemical composition using standard methods. Animal smdies were used to evaluate the raw and processed sesame in terms of nutritional and histopathological qualities.
Results. The ranges of proximate contents from sesame were: protein 15.4-26.5 g/100 g. fat 52.4-62.8 g/100 g, crude fibre 3.34-3.89 g/100 g. ash 3.93-6.78 g/100 g. carbohydrate 11.7-13.4 g/100 g and energy value 550.7-593.7 kcal/g. Among the minerals, calcium was highest (464-567 mg/100 g) followed by phosphorus (442-508 mg/100 g). magnesium (399-455 mg/100 g) and potassium (336-489 mg/100 g). Total essential amino acid was within the range of 26.66-32.73 mg/100 g and these values were higher than FAO/WHO dietary requirement for infant and adult. Fatty acid profiles of raw. roasted and fermented sesame showed a predominance of oleic acid (46.43%, 44.20%, and 43.16%, respectively) followed by linoleic acid (36.76%. 39.02%, and 39.67%); while the least was behenic acid. The unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranges between 5.01-5.13. Phytate and oxalate concentrations of fermented sesame were significantly reduced than other food samples. In general, fermented sesame was found to have to have better nutritional quality as indicated by rat growth response. Correspondingly, the Food Efficiency Ratio (FER) value of 0.16 was higher than raw and roasted sesame respectively. Significantly higher Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) value was also obtained for fermented sesame. The organ to body ratios of the test animals were influenced by treatments as recorded
on heart, kidney, spleen, liver and pancreas.
Conclusion. The present study investigated the effect of roasting and fermentation 011 the nutritional quality of sesame flour. The findings showed that roasting and fermentation could enhance the nutritional quality of sesame seeds without detrimental effect 011 human.


Characteristics of the peanut chain in Europe – implications for peanut allergy

Background. Peanuts are one of the main food allergens, occasionally responsible for life-threatening reactions. Thus, many studies have tried to fi nd a connection between peanut allergy prevalence and processes in the peanut chain that may contribute to the peanut allergenicity. To inform this discussion, this paper outlines experiences in peanut cultivation, trade and processing in Europe, focusing on four European countries with different peanut experiences (Poland, Bulgaria, Spain and the UK).
Material and method. Results here are based on documentary analysis and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 32 experts involved in various stages of the peanut chain, including peanut farmers, processors, traders, food technologists and manufacturers.
Results. A common peanut chain diagram has been drawn considering shelled and in-shell peanuts. The analysis of each stage of peanut processing has been made in accordance with this peanut chain schema. Thermal and mechanical processes are discussed alongside the resultant end peanut products available for European consumers. The paper also analyses the main trends of peanut trade in Europe. The results suggest that the majority of peanut products in Europe are roasted, implying enhanced exposure of the population to more allergenic peanuts.
Conclusion. The presented schema and related discussion bring together diverse aspects of peanut production, trade and processing. The main factor associated with the increased allergenicity of peanuts appears to be high temperature roasting. Frying and boiling are also thermal processes, but fried and boiled peanuts have been associated with reduce peanut allergenicity. Neither country of origin nor cultivar type appear to be related to differential peanut allergenicity. More research is needed as regards the impact of various additives, such as chocolate (which is also considered an allergen) on the allergenicity of peanut products. The use of peanuts in non-food products also needs more investigation.