ACTA Scientiarum Polonorum - Technologia Alimentaria News en (c) Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu przyrodniczego w Poznaniu Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fi bre. Diets high in dietary fi bre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Diff erent food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be aff ected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the eff ect of diff erent food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

Eff ect of barley β-glucan addition as a fat replacer on muffi n quality.

Background. The aim of this study was to perform the partial replacement of bakery fat with barley β;-glucan in muffi ns and to determine its eff ect on the physical properties of products. Most shortenings used in the industry are solid fats rich in saturated fatty acids and often trans fatty isomers, which are nutritionally unfavorable.
Material and methods. Dough and baked muffi ns were used as the research material. Five muffi n recipes were prepared: control (K0%) with 16% fat content in the total dough weight, with fat content decreased by 10% (PG10%), 15% (PG15%), 20% (PG20%) and 25% (PG25%). β;-glucan was used as a fat replacer in the 1:4 ratio. The parameters determining the physical characteristics and sensory attributes were measured, compared and statistically analyzed using a principal component analysis (PCA) method.
Results. Although the partial replacement of shortening with barley β;-glucan is possible, it may negatively infl uence the physical properties of dough (aeration) and baked products (volume, density). It has been observed that increasing the content of this fat replacer enlarges the pores of the crumb. The textural properties of muffi ns with a fat content decreased by 20% are most similar to the control. Moreover, it has been shown that the overall sensory quality goes down when the amount of fat replacer in the muffi n recipe is increased. However, adding β;-glucan to products in which fat content was decreased by 10% did not infl uence significantly the typical taste.
Conclusion. Despite the adverse eff ect of β;-glucan on the physical and sensorial properties, it was found to be reasonable to use it even in small amounts (up to 10%) to increase the nutritional value of products.

The eff ect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions

Background. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables signifi cantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This benefi cial eff ect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the eff ect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins).
Material and methods. Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson’s method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identifi ed using HPLC-MS.
Results. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically signifi cant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13–15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating additionally 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin was detected.
Conclusion. Both groups of betalain pigments (betacyanins and betaxanthins) exhibit antioxidant capacity before and after heating. Violet beatacyjanins are 3 times more stable when heated than yellow betaxanthins.

Antiradical capacity and polyphenol composition of asparagus spears varieties cultivated under diff erent sunlight conditions

Background. Asparagus offi cinalis has a high nutritional value. Asparagus is rich in a number of bioactive compounds, mainly fl avonoids (quercetin), glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, fructans (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) and phytosterols (b-sitosterol). These compounds may play an important role in human health. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant potential and polyphenol composition of white, pale-colored and green asparagus spears of diff erent cultivars.
Material and methods. Investigations were conducted on diff erent asparagus spear extracts. The study included three colors of asparagus (white, pale-colored and green) from fi ve diff erent cultivars subjected to the ethanol extraction procedure. Total phenolic content was also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Polyphenol (phenolic acids and fl avonols) composition was estimated using the HPLC method. The antioxidant properties of extracts were examined using DPPH, ABTS and metal ion chelating assays.
Results. The highest contents of phenolic and fl avonoids were observed in green asparagus from Grolim and the lowest in pale-colored asparagus from Gyjmlin. It was found that both the color of asparagus and the cultivar had a signifi cant eff ect on the composition of phenolic acid and fl avonols. Radical scavenging activity toward DPPH• and ABTS was highest for green asparagus cv. Grolim and Eposs. The greatest number of Fe ions was chelated by samples of green asparagus cv. Grolim and Huchel’s Alpha and pale-colored asparagus cv. Huchel’s Alpha.
Conclusion. It was shown that the antioxidant activity of asparagus spears measured by antiradical and chelating activity test depends on variety and color. The highest activity was found in green asparagus and the lowest was identifi ed in white asparagus extracts. It has also been clarifi ed that changes in fl avonol and phenolic acid composition and increases in their diversity depends on growing with sunlight and variety. Asparagus can provide a valuable source of phenolic compounds in the human diet.

Antioxidant activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.)

Background. Coffee is important source of natural antioxidants in the diet, such as phenolic compounds, alkaloids, mainly caffeine, diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) and Maillard reaction products formed during roasting.
Material and methods. In aqueous and methanolic extracts of coff ee (Coffea arabica L.) roasted using traditional techniques from Brazil (B), Colombia (C), Ethiopia (E), Kenya (K) and coffee roasted using an industrial technique from Brazil (T), the phenolic and caffeine content as well as antioxidant properties were determined.
Results. Comparing the results from water and methanolic extracts it should be noted that the highest amount of phenolics was determined for a methanolic extract of coff ee roasted using the industrial technique (650.96 mg GAE/g DW) and a water extract of Kenya coffee (461.63 mg GAE/g DW). Caffeine content was on average two times higher in all methanolic extracts than in water extracts. The radical scavenging activity of aqueous extracts was found to be higher than methanolic extracts. The highest antioxidant scavenging activity was determined for C (EC50 = 1.16 mg DW/ml) and E (EC50 = 1.3 mg DW/ml) water extracts. Compared to water extracts methanolic extracts showed signifi cantly higher reducing power, ability to chelate Fe2+, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and inhibition of lipoxygenase.
Conclusions. This study demonstrated that the methanolic extracts obtained from different types of coffee exhibit potential anti-infl ammatory and antioxidant properties. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by traditionally roasted coffees from Colombia and Ethiopia

Influence of impurities in raw material on sensory and physicochemical properties of cold-pressed rapeseedoil produced from conventionally and ecologically grown seeds

Background. The main problem of cold-pressed technology is its low yield and the varying quality of the end product, which is dependent on the quality of the raw material, technological process applied and also on conditions of packaging and storage. The eff ects of diff erent contents of impurities in rapeseed on the sensory, physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of rapeseed oil produced by cold-pressing were investigated.
Material and methods. Cold-pressed oil produced from conventionally grown rapeseeds (individual cultivars and industrial seeds) and certifi ed ecological rapeseeds. Quantifi ed quality parameters included the following: the content of impurities, acid value, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices (K232, K268), oxidative stability determined by the Rancimat test, pheophytin a content, and sensory assessment.
Results. The seeds which were homogenous in terms of cultivar contained the lowest level of impurities (up to 1.3%) and diff ered signifi cantly in this regard from ecological and industrial seeds. It was found that the presence of impurities exerts an adverse eff ect on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of the oil. Impurity content exceeding 5% resulted in the appearance of off -fl avours, such as woody, strawy and fusty/musty. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between impurity content and acid value (r = 0.781), peroxide value (r = 0.656), anisidine value (r = 0.645), K232 (r = 0.625), while in the case of oxidative stability, no such correlation was observed.
Conclusions. The type and percentage of seed impurities in the rape crop determines the sensory and physicochemical properties of the cold-pressed oil. It seems advisable, therefore, to minimize the amount of impurities, in order to obtain high-quality cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

Assessment of colour changes during storage of elderberry juice concentrate solutions using the optimization method

Background. Elderberries are a source of dietary supplements and bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins. These dyes are used in food technology. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in colour parameters, anthocyanin contents and sensory attributes in solutions of elderberry juice concentrates during storage in a model system and to determine predictability of sensory attributes of colour in solutions based on regression equations using the response surface methodology.
Material and methods. The experiment was carried out according to the 3-level factorial design for three factors. Independent variables included pH, storage time and temperature. Dependent variables were assumed to be the components and colour parameters in the CIE L*a*b* system, pigment contents and sensory attributes.
Results. Changes in colour components X, Y, Z and colour parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and h* were most dependent on pH values. Colour lightness L* and tone h* increased with an increase in experimental factors, while the share of the red colour a* and colour saturation C* decreased. The greatest eff ect on the anthocyanin concentration was recorded for storage time. Sensory attributes deteriorated during storage. The highest correlation coeffi cients were found between the value of colour tone h* and anthocyanin contents in relation to the assessment of the naturalness and desirability of colour. A high goodness-of-fi t of the model to data and high values of R2 for regression equations were obtained for all responses.
Conclusion. The response surface method facilitates optimization of experimental factor values in order to obtain a specifi c attribute of the product, but not in all cases of the experiment. Within the tested range of factors, it is possible to predict changes in anthocyanin content and the sensory attributes of elderberry juice concentrate solutions as food dye, on the basis of the lack of a fit test. The highest stability of dyes and colour of elderberry solutions was found in the samples at pH 3.0, which confi rms the advisability of using an anthocyanin preparation to shape the colour of high-acidity food products, such as fruit fi llings, beverages,desserts.

The eff ect of replacing pork fat of inulin on the physicochemical and sensory quality of guinea fowl pate

Background. Potentially, pâtés could be a functional food and are an important source of proteins, vitamin A, B complex vitamins and iron. Unfortunately, one problem in pâtés is the high level of animal fat, about 30%. Pâté with low-fat guinea fowl meat and animal fat replaced with inulin can result in this product being classified as a pro-health food. The objective of the present study was to determine the eff ect on pâté with guinea fowl meat of reducing its pork back fat content (about 1/3, 2/3 and 100%) and the adding inulin as a partial fat substitute. The eff ects on the pâté’s chemical and physicochemical composition, as well as on its textural characteristics and sensory properties were analysed.
Methods. On the day after production, the following took place: chemical analysis: cooking loss, moisture, protein, total fat, total calories, the pH, lipid oxidation were analysed; physical analysis: colour parameters, texture profi le analysis and sensory evaluation were analysed.
Results. The pâté prepared with inulin gels as fat replacers had a fat content reduced (up to 82%), and decreased (up to 58%) energy value. The fat reduction and addition of inulin gels decreased hardness and chewiness, but the pâté’s appearance, taste and odour, as well as overall quality were similar to the control (full-fat samples).
Conclusion. The study demonstrated that inulin can be used in guinea fowl pâtés as a total fat replacer and a potential source of prebiotic.

Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations

Background. In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines.
Material and methods. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method.
Results. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%). The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114) was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg) than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg). The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β;-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ) and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH). Signifi cantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p < 0.01), γ-T (r = –0,34, p < 0.01) and PC-8 content (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Correlations between the seed color with total tocopherol and total phytosterol content were not noted.
Conclusion. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may be good parents for further breeding programs focused on increasing the amount and improving the quality of oilseed rapeseed oil. However, further studies will also be made to determine the infl uence of the environment on bioactive compounds in rapeseed oil. Cross direction of parental DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded has some infl uence, albeit not statistically signifi cant, on the diversity of doubled haploid in their populations with regard to average fat, tocochromanol and phytosterol content.

Legume seeds and cereal grains’ capacity to accumulate iron while sprouting in order to obtain food fortifi cant.

Background. Prepared sprouts, after culturing in a medium with an increased iron concentration, could become a benefi cial food iron fortifi cant. However, the effi cient iron accumulation depends on the plants genus, species and/or varieties. The aim of the study was to indicate the seeds or grains which accumulate iron most effi ciently during the sprouting process.
Material and methods. Alfalfa, lentil, lupine and soybean seeds as well as wheat grains were sprouted in abiotic stress conditions induced by the excess of iron(II) in culture media. The tolerance of these plants to iron concentration and its accumulation in the material obtained (with FAAS method) were analyzed.
Results. The smallest tolerance was noted for lentil seeds and wheat grains. Other plants developed in 25 mM solution of FeSO4. The highest accumulation of iron was observed in alfalfa sprouts. However, lupine and soybean seeds are the most recommended raw material for the production of the sprouts on an industrial scale.

An analysis of the meal pattern at the nutrient level in Polish women

Background. Before the 1990’s, access to a variety of foods in Eastern Europe was limited, which could have influenced the currently analyzed dietary behaviors pertaining to overweight and obesity development. The aim of this study was to describe the daily profile of meal patterns in Polish women aged 50–70 at the nutrient level.
Material and methods. The anthropometrical parameters of four-hundred and fifty Polish women aged 50–70 were assessed. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and validated questionnaires regarding socio-demographic-economic status and meal frequency were applied. Timing in food intake was considered as follow: 6:00–8:59 CET – breakfast, 9:00–11:59 CET – morning snacks, 12:00–14:59 CET – lunch, 15:00–17:59 CET – afternoon snacks, 18:00–21:00 CET – dinner. Statistical analyses were conducted using Tukey’s multiple comparison tests and discriminant analysis.
Results. No statistically significant differences were found in socio-demographic-economic and anthropometrical characteristics between women categorized to differentiated meal frequency intakes. However, the subjects from the 5-meal-per-day group were characterized by higher anthropometrical parameters, the statistically lowest percentage of regularity in meal consumption and skipping meals related to shortest breaks between meals. At the nutrient level, potassium, niacin, vitamin E and vitamin D were selected in the discriminant analysis as the nutrients most strongly related to different dietary behaviors.
Conclusion. Our findings did not provide sufficient evidence that diverse nutrient intake could lead to the development of a specific nutritional profile in Polish women.