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Issue 10 (2) 2011 pp. 251-265

Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy, Magdalena Bonczek

West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin

Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

Abstract

Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue) in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL). The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index), WC (Waist Circumference), WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio), and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals.
Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR) of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined) and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group) the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented.
Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than
in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu), vitamins (E, B1, PP) and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6) supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the boys’ diets. In the girls’ diets distinctive differences have been noticed dependent on the value of BMI index, in realisation of the recommended supply: Fe, vitamins A, B1, and for the boys in realization of recommended supply of dietary fibre, K, Ca, vitamins A, B2, C and liquids. The Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of the basic meals – breakfasts, dinners and suppers – and an average GI and GL of meals from three days was significantly higher for the girls than for the boys. Depending on the BMI, the GI and GL value of basic meals and that of the average of three days were not statistically significant for the girls, although for obese boys they were significantly higher in breakfasts, dinners and suppers than for the boys with normal weight and overweight boys.
Conclusions. In thirteen-year-old children with abdominal obesity, regardless of their BMI Index values, numerous dietary mistakes were ascertained, for example: improper number of meals during the day, resignation from basic meals and frequent snacking, unbalanced diet, improper consumption of basic food groups and medium GI and high GL of meals. Children’s diet might be the cause of the existing state of nourishment, including visceral obesity; it might predestine deeper disturbances in carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and that is why nutrition education in primary schools is necessary.

Keywords: Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio, children
pub/.pdf Full text available in english in Adobe Acrobat format:
http://www.food.actapol.net/issue2/volume/10_2_2011.pdf

For citation:

MLA Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna, and Magdalena Bonczek. "Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI." Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 10.2 (2011): 251-265.
APA Goluch-Koniuszy Z., Bonczek M. (2011). Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 10 (2), 251-265
ISO 690 GOLUCH-KONIUSZY, Zuzanna, BONCZEK, Magdalena. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment., 2011, 10.2: 251-265.