Issue 13 (3) 2014 pp. 321-333
Anna M. Prusak1, Małgorzata Schlegel-Zawadzka2, Annabelle Boulay3, Gene Rowe4
2Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Public Health, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Poland
3Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter Amory Building, United Kingdom
4Gene Rowe Evaluation, United Kingdom
Characteristics of the peanut chain in Europe – implications for peanut allergy
Background. Peanuts are one of the main food allergens, occasionally responsible for life-threatening reactions. Thus, many studies have tried to fi nd a connection between peanut allergy prevalence and processes in the peanut chain that may contribute to the peanut allergenicity. To inform this discussion, this paper outlines experiences in peanut cultivation, trade and processing in Europe, focusing on four European countries with different peanut experiences (Poland, Bulgaria, Spain and the UK).
Material and method. Results here are based on documentary analysis and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 32 experts involved in various stages of the peanut chain, including peanut farmers, processors, traders, food technologists and manufacturers.
Results. A common peanut chain diagram has been drawn considering shelled and in-shell peanuts. The analysis of each stage of peanut processing has been made in accordance with this peanut chain schema. Thermal and mechanical processes are discussed alongside the resultant end peanut products available for European consumers. The paper also analyses the main trends of peanut trade in Europe. The results suggest that the majority of peanut products in Europe are roasted, implying enhanced exposure of the population to more allergenic peanuts.
Conclusion. The presented schema and related discussion bring together diverse aspects of peanut production, trade and processing. The main factor associated with the increased allergenicity of peanuts appears to be high temperature roasting. Frying and boiling are also thermal processes, but fried and boiled peanuts have been associated with reduce peanut allergenicity. Neither country of origin nor cultivar type appear to be related to differential peanut allergenicity. More research is needed as regards the impact of various additives, such as chocolate (which is also considered an allergen) on the allergenicity of peanut products. The use of peanuts in non-food products also needs more investigation.
Keywords: peanut allergy, peanut chain, peanut processing, peanut cultivars
|MLA||Prusak, Anna M., et al. "Characteristics of the peanut chain in Europe – implications for peanut allergy." Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 13.3 (2014): 321-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2014.3.10|
|APA||Prusak A.M., Schlegel-Zawadzka M., Boulay A., Rowe G. (2014). Characteristics of the peanut chain in Europe – implications for peanut allergy. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 13 (3), 321-333 http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2014.3.10|
|ISO 690||PRUSAK, Anna M., et al. Characteristics of the peanut chain in Europe – implications for peanut allergy. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment., 2014, 13.3: 321-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2014.3.10|