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Issue 13 (1) 2014 pp. 27-34

Kiruthika Viswanathan, Peter Ho

Procter Department of Food Science, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)


Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required
to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance.
Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris) at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method.
Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility.
Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

Keywords: red kidney beans, sprouting, protein, in-vitro protein digestibility, fl at bread
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For citation:

MLA Viswanathan, Kiruthika, and Peter Ho. "Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)." Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 13.1 (2014): 27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2014.1.2
APA Viswanathan K., Ho P. (2014). Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 13 (1), 27-34 http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2014.1.2
ISO 690 VISWANATHAN, Kiruthika, HO, Peter. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment., 2014, 13.1: 27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2014.1.2