original articleIssue 14 (1) 2015 pp. 71-75
Ogbonnaya Nwokoro, Odiase Anthonia
Studies on the production of alkaline ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18
Background. Amylases are among the main enzymes used in food and other industries. They hydrolyse starch molecules into polymers composing glucose units. Amylases have potential applications in a number of industrial processes including foods and pharmaceutical industries. Alkaline α-amylase has the potential of hydrolysing starch under alkaline pH and is useful in the starch and textile industries and as an ingredient of detergents. Amylases are produced from plants, however, microbial production processes have dominated applications in the industries. Optimization of microbial production processes can result in improved enzyme yields.
Material and methods. Amylase activity was assayed by incubating the enzyme solution (0.5 ml) with 1% soluble starch (0.5 ml) in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5). After 30 minutes, the reaction was stopped by the addition of 4 mL of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent then heated for 10 min in boiling water bath and cooled in a refrigerator. Absorbance readings were used to estimate the units of enzyme activity from glucose standard curve. Hydrolysed native starches from cassava, rice, corn, coco yam, maize and potato and soluble starch were adjusted to pH 8.5 prior to incubation with crude enzyme solution. Reducing sugars produced were therefore determined. The effect of pH on enzyme activity of the alkaline α-amylase was determined by using buffer solutions of different pH (potassium phosphate buffer, 6.0–7.0; Tris-HCl buffer 7.5 to 9.0 and carbonate/bicarbonate buffer, pH 9.5–11) for enzyme assay. The pH stability profile of the enzyme was determined by incubating 0.5 ml of α-amylase enzyme in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) and 0.5 ml of 1% (w/v) soluble starch (Merck) in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) for 3 h in various buffers. The effect of temperature on enzyme activity was studied by incubating 0.5 mL of the enzyme solution contained in the test tube and 0.5 mL of 1% soluble starch (Merck) solution prepared in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) for 3 h at various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C) in a thermo static water bath. The reactions were stopped by adding DNS reagent. The enzyme activity was therefore determined. Thermal stability was studied by incubating 0.5 ml of enzyme solution in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) and 0.5 ml of 1% (w/v) soluble starch (Merck) in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) for 3 h at various temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°C) for 60 min.
Results. The enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 8.0 at which it produced maximum specific activity of 34.3 units/mg protein. Maximum stability was at pH 8.0 to 9.0. Maximum activity was observed at temperature of 50°C while thermo stability of the enzyme was observed at 40–50°C. The enzyme displayed a wide range of activities on starch and caused the release of 5.86, 4.75, 5.98, 3.44, 3.96, 8.84 mg/mL reducing sugar from cassava, potato, cocoyam, corn, rice and soluble starch respectively.
Conclusion. This investigation reports some biochemical characterization of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18. The substrate specificities of this enzyme on various starches suggested that the alkaline α-amylase enzyme had combined activities on raw and soluble starch.
Keywords: alkaline ?-amylase, starch hydrolysis, enzyme activity
|MLA||Nwokoro, Ogbonnaya, and Odiase Anthonia. "Studies on the production of alkaline ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18." Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 14.1 (2015): 71-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2015.1.8|
|APA||Nwokoro O., Anthonia O. (2015). Studies on the production of alkaline ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 14 (1), 71-75 http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2015.1.8|
|ISO 690||NWOKORO, Ogbonnaya, ANTHONIA, Odiase. Studies on the production of alkaline ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment., 2015, 14.1: 71-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2015.1.8|