Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria

ISSN:1644-0730, e-ISSN:1898-9594

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original articleIssue 21 (1) 2022 pp. 111-122

Pui Liew Phing1, Aisyah Abdullah1, Chang Lee Sin2, Shalini Chan Yin Foong1

1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Science, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

The effect of drying methods on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bintangor orange (Citrus nobilis) powders

Abstract

Background. Bintangor oranges are a mandarin species that is abundant in vitamin C and beta-carotene. However, due to its short shelf life, the fresh fruit can be converted into powder form, which is comparatively more stable.
Materials and methods. This study compares the effects of spray drying, freeze drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying, and convection oven drying on the physicochemical properties of Bintangor orange powder, including vitamin C and total carotenoid content. The physicochemical properties analyzed for the powders were color analysis, moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, wettability, flowability, water solubility index, and bulk density.
Results. Our results showed that freeze dried and convection oven dried powders retained their color so that the powder was the same as the original puree. All powders used in this showed an acceptable moisture content level, with a range of 2.11–2.31%. Spray dried and drum dried powders had the lowest value of moisture content and water activity. Moreover, spray dried powders showed the lowest value in hygroscopicity and bulk density and took the shortest time to wet the powder. The highest solubility and flowability properties were 12.99%, 0.39 g/mL, 18.39 s, 96.08%, and 19.17°, respectively. However, the freeze drying method retained the highest value for both nutritional pigments of vitamin C and total carotenoid content, 18.31 mg/g and 91.32 μg/g, respectively.
Conclusion. Freeze drying is the most suitable drying method with favorable powder properties compared to spray drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying and convection oven drying.

Keywords: Bintangor orange, spray drying, freeze drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying, convection oven drying
pub/.pdf Full text available in english in Adobe Acrobat format:
http://www.food.actapol.net/volume21/issue1/10_1_2022.pdf

https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2022.0901

For citation:

MLA Phing, Pui Liew, et al. "The effect of drying methods on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bintangor orange (Citrus nobilis) powders." Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 21.1 (2022): 111-122. https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2022.0901
APA Phing P. L., Abdullah A., Lee Sin Ch., Yin Foong S. Ch. (2022). The effect of drying methods on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bintangor orange (Citrus nobilis) powders. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment. 21 (1), 111-122 https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2022.0901
ISO 690 PHING, Pui Liew, et al. The effect of drying methods on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bintangor orange (Citrus nobilis) powders. Acta Sci.Pol. Technol. Aliment., 2022, 21.1: 111-122. https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2022.0901